Year : 2015 | Volume
: 1 | Issue : 1 | Page : 2-
Antibiotic resistance: Have we reached the end of the road?
Department of Microbiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India
Department of Microbiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry
|How to cite this article:|
Kanungo R. Antibiotic resistance: Have we reached the end of the road?.J Curr Res Sci Med 2015;1:2-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Kanungo R. Antibiotic resistance: Have we reached the end of the road?. J Curr Res Sci Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Apr 5 ];1:2-2
Available from: http://www.jcrsmed.org/text.asp?2015/1/1/2/168927
The Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine is a multidisciplinary journal of healthcare professionals offering a platform to publish original articles, reviews and case studies on recent developments and current issues in human health and disease. With an objective to holistic approach to patient care, this journal will encourage publication of collaborative, interdisciplinary research in health care setups and the community. Several issues need attention, that may, with the dissemination of information generate interest and discussion among medical professionals.
One of the current issues causing concern globally across specialties is the problem of antibiotic resistance. In a recent Medscape news on Infectious Disease entitled "Global Antibiotic Use and Resistance in 'Dire' situation" (http://www.medscape.com/) antibiotic resistance has been estimated to be huge in low-income countries including East and South Africa, and South Asia. The situation is alarming according to the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP). In his note Ramanan Laxminarayanan Director of CDDEP says "we need to focus 80% of our global resources on stewardship and no more than 20% on drug development" he adds "no matter how many new drugs come out, if we continue to misuse them, they might as well have never been discovered." (http://www.medscape.com/). The situation in India is even more alarming due to lack of regulatory mechanism, over the counter prescription and prescriber apathy. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are increasingly being reported across the country. Totally drug resistant, pan-drug resistant, extended drug resistant and MDR strains have become common terms in clinical practice of infectious diseases. It appears that we have reached the end of the road to treat preventable infections. Antibiotics which were once considered as the drug of last resort have now become the antibiotics of first choice. A case in point are the third generation cephalosporins (ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime) carbapenems (imipenem meropenem) and macrolides (azithromycin), which are being prescribed as soon as an infection is detected. Rates of resistance to these antibiotics are increasing by the day. There are documented evidence and reports of a steady rise in resistant strains. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the common organisms associated with the hospital-acquired infections, rose from 29% in 2008 to 57% in 2014 in India (CDDEP report 2015). So where does that lead us?
A concerted effort by all the stakeholders is the key to slow down and hopefully reverse the trend. Restricted and judicious use of antibiotics, strict hospital infection control practices, and antibiotic stewardship hold the key to stem the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. This effort requires the participation of all healthcare professionals. Regulatory and monitoring mechanisms by hospital management and administrators, regulations of dispensing bodies such as the prescribers in hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies, need to be implemented. Governments must formulate policies on sale and purchase of antibiotics. Creating awareness among healthcare professionals on the trends and patterns of antibiotic resistance requires networking and data dissemination. Laboratories can closely coordinate in this effort by generating reliable data based on standard practices.