• Users Online: 340
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
INVITED EDITORIAL
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-77

Analyses of team building, coaching, and motivation skills


Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Borders University, Arar, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication14-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Anshoo Agarwal
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Borders University, Arar
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_39_19

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Agarwal A. Analyses of team building, coaching, and motivation skills. J Curr Res Sci Med 2019;5:75-7

How to cite this URL:
Agarwal A. Analyses of team building, coaching, and motivation skills. J Curr Res Sci Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 20];5:75-7. Available from: http://www.jcrsmed.org/text.asp?2019/5/2/75/275789



Team building process includes how team members participate, apply influence, solve problems, make decisions, and manage conflicts.[1]

The teams go through five phases during their developmental and working processes as follows:[2],[3],[4]

  1. Forming: At this stage, a team is composed of relatively independent individuals, where each has their own needs, goals, and expected outcomes. Leadership processes can help align these individual needs and goals across individuals and instead of a set of individual identities, they help in making team-based identity, which serves as a potent resource for subsequent performance [5]
  2. Storming: The cognitions, behaviors, and attitudes reflect the competencies that team members need to have in order to execute effective team functions and to achieve performance greater than the total independent efforts of all individual team members. During the second stage, the emphasis is on building networked relationships among individuals that enhance cooperation and connectivity [6]
  3. Norming: In the third stage, the team uses established tools and methods; exhibit mutual trust and professionalism grows more among the team members. Furthermore, they build and maintain a sense of team efficacy to deal with challenges faced in the operational environment [7]
  4. Performing: The fourth stage shows high levels of participation, knowledge sharing, and more interdependence. Eventually the team ensures that everything is running as expected, and procedures are followed correctly. Thus, allowing for backup behavior to occur where teams effectively monitor their own performance as well as that of their members [8]
  5. Transforming: Finalizing stage to recognize group achievement.[8]


Following are a few steps, which has to be followed for team building processes.

The first step is self and other awareness. To achieve self-awareness and other team member's awareness, a self-assessment tool is given to the team members to make them aware of their strengths and weaknesses. The second step is clarification of their role. It is an agreement to each person's responsibilities. The third step is to define ground rules – these are the “behavioral norms agreed upon by the entire team.” This can be achieved as follows:[9],[10]

(a) analyzing the key issue of attention for the team; (b) identify the complications that are in the way of achieving the objective; and (c) specify the range of options available for problem resolution. Such an approach, known as “problem-centered training,” emphasizes the course plotting of process by the team members. When a team has agreed upon individual responsibilities and team ground rules, it reduces ambiguity; and thereby, increasing the chances for team's acceptance of what is being decided by the leader.[11]

The issue of empowerment comes as a concluding block. Empowerment occurs when a leader is able to transfer his/her skills to the team, so they can facilitate themselves.

Proposed activities during the Coaching Process Cycle:

Activity of coaching process cycle can be explained through the coaching concepts survey, which is designed to introspect employee development. It includes ten statements that can be made a policy in organization as how to be responsible for the development of people.[12]

  • Planned people development: Developing people is a pillar of any institute and is the best means available to achieve results for the organization
  • The development of the people should be planned professionally: It should be considered skillfully and should be supported knowledgeably with the proper guidance and support
  • To review individual development plans at least annually: As the growth is different for everyone, there should be individual improvement plans which need to be monitored, so that the progress made by any individual can be appraised at least annually
  • Asking subordinates to work out a specific plan for personal development: Everyone has developmental needs in order to help achieve the mission of the organization, so each subordinate should be asked to have a specific personal development plan
  • Compilation of individual development plans for each subordinate: According to the policy that all employees in order to continue to perform well in the present areas of responsibility, they must keep pace with developments in their field. Compilation of this individual development plans for each subordinate should be done
  • Periodic on-the-job coaching: This is one-way, in which a leader will move from conversation to action, from backing to personal participation
  • Correcting subordinates' mistakes/errors: Amending subordinates' faults ought to be seen as an integral part of helping people grow. This gives a chance to subordinate to learn. The leader and the subordinate should visualize that there will be times when giving directions or giving amendments will be required
  • Encouraging subordinates to take advantage of job rotation opportunities to grow: Everyone should be cheered to consider, whenever the job rotation might be suitable and beneficial
  • Providing time for people to pursue development activities consistent with the workload: Leaders are expected to provide time for people to engage in whatever the appropriate developmental activities are required for each individual


  • Subordinates should be made to realize that the development needs should not be scheduled around work necessities; therefore, an honest attempt should be made by them to balance one with the other

  • Recommend someone and help to develop at least one replacement candidate for the job: Identify an heir for recommendation by selecting a person who might already be qualified, so that when the leader moves on the replacement is there for key position.



  Different Motivation Theories Top


Motivation is one of the cornerstones and the major principles of effective and wise leadership. In general, individuals' unsatisfied needs motivate them and push their mental forces to accomplish an action. On the professional level, individuals need has to be understood, affirmed, and appreciated.[13]

There are many motivation theories, which explain human behaviors and suggest tools to motivate them.


  Needs Theories Top


Maslow's hierarchy of needs

In this theory, Abraham Maslow has laid an individual's needs from the most basic, lowest level needs to the high-level needs, displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, whereas the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential.[14]

Alderfer's Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory (ERG) theory

ERG theory condenses Maslow's five human needs into three categories: existence, relatedness, and growth.

  • Existence needs: Include all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love, and affection)
  • Relatedness needs: Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with others such as family, friends, coworkers, and employers
  • Growth needs: Internal esteem and self-actualization.


McClelland's trichotomy of needs theory

This theory states that human behavior is affected by three needs – Need for power, achievement, and affiliation. Need for power is the desire to be influential. Need for achievement is the urge to excel. Need for affiliation is a need for open and sociable interpersonal relationships.

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to it, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction, while there are other job factors that lead to dissatisfaction.

Hygiene factors – Hygiene factors are those job factors, which are essential for the existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long term. However, if these factors are absent, then they lead to dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors.[15] These factors describe the job environment/scenario.


  Equity Theory Top


Equity theory addresses the equity or fairness in the workplace. It states that a person is motivated in proportion to the perceived fairness. The theory is built on the belief that employees become demotivated if the employee perceives the disparity between the inputs and the outputs.[16]


  Reinforcement Theory Top


According to this theory, individual's behavior is a function of its consequences. It is based on “law of effect,” that is, individual's behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individual's behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of an individual. Thus, according to it, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively, so as to motivate the employee.[14],[15]


  Expectancy Theory Top


Motivation is a function of expectancy, valence, and instrumentality. Motivating employees involves meeting their needs, ensuring equity in the workplace, reinforcing desired behaviors, and setting specific, challenging, and accepted goals.[11],[12],[13]


  Goal-Setting Theory Top


Goal-setting theory holds that the process of setting goals can motivate individuals. Furthermore, motivation is increased if individuals receive ongoing feedback about their progress toward achieving their goals. The motivation and goal-setting theory are widely regarded among the top management theories.[14] Without the most basic goals, employees would not show up for work or see a purpose in holding a job.[10]


  Many Establishments Prefer Goal-Setting Theory Top


This theory credits its success with a “culture that unites and motivates” its workers. The basic key points in goal-setting theory state that the motivational goals need to have the following dimensions: clarity, challenge, commitment, feedback, and complexity. Goals need to be clear and measurable.



 
  References Top

1.
Gilley A, McMillan HS, Gilley JW. Organizational change and characteristics of leadership effectiveness. J Leadersh Organ Stud 2009;16:38-47.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Appelbaum SH, Habashy S, Malo JL, Shafiq H. Back to the future: Revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model. J Manage Dev 2012;31:764-82.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Erkutlu H. The impact of transformational leadership on organizational and leadership effectiveness. J Manage Dev 2008;27:708-26.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ford JD, Ford LW, D'Amelio A. Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Acad Manage Rev 2008;33:362-77.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gilley A, Gilley JW, McMillan HS. Organizational change: motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. Performance Improvement Quarterly 2009;21:75-94.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Golm H. Examining the Relationship between Transformational, Transactional, and Change-Oriented Leadership and their Influence on Leadership Effectiveness, Columbia University, New York; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Herold DM, Fedor DB, Caldwell S, Liu Y. The effects of transformational and change leadership on employee's commitment to a change: A multilevel study. J Applied Psychol 2008;93:346-57.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hill NS, Seo MG, Kang JH, Taylor SH. Building employee commitment to change across organizational levels: The influence of hierarchical distance and direct managers' transformational leadership. Organ Sci 2012;23:758-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nodeson S, Beleya P, Raman G, Ramendran C. Leadership role in handling employee's resistance: Implementation of innovation. Interdiscip J Contemp Res Bus 2012;4:466-77.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Phipps ST, Prieto LC, Verma S. Holding the helm: exploring the influence of transformational leadership on group creativity, and the moderating role of organizational learning culture. J Organ Culture Commun Conflict 2012;16:135-46.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Popper M, Lipshitz R. Installing mechanisms and instilling values: The role of leaders in organizational learning. Learning Organization 2000;7:135-44.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Raes AM, Heijltjes MG, Glunk U, Roe RA. The interface of the top management team and middle managers: A process model. Academy Manage Rev 2011;36:102-26.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Rashid MZ, Sambasivan M, Johari J. The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance. J Manage Dev 2003;22:708-28.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Repenning NP, Sterman JD. Capability traps and self-confirming attribution errors in the dynamics of process improvement. Administrative Sci Q 2002;47:265-95.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Teare R, Monk S. Learning from change. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manage 2015;47:334-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Walumba FO, Avolio BJ, Zhu WC. How transformational leadership weaves its influences on individual job performance: the role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel Psychol 2008;61:793-825.  Back to cited text no. 16
    




 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Different Motiva...
Needs Theories
Equity Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Expectancy Theory
Goal-Setting Theory
Many Establishme...
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed76    
    Printed4    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded15    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]