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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 84-87

Evaluation of antidiabetic property of quail egg on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats


1 Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia, Nigeria
2 Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana

Date of Submission17-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance05-Sep-2017
Date of Web Publication8-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
David Arome
School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown
Guyana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcrsm.jcrsm_32_17

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  Abstract 

Background: Alloxan-induced hyperglycemia has been a useful experimental model to study activity of hypoglycemic agents. Alloxan has been utilized in the diabetes model due to its ability to produce a high percentage of the endogenous beta cells destruction.
Objective: The principal objective of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic property of quail egg on alloxan-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Freshly, prepared quail egg of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml and reference standard drug of metformin 10 mg/kg were used in the study, administered through oral route. The antidiabetic property of the quail egg was evaluated using alloxan-induced diabetes in Wistar albino model.
Results: The quail egg-treated groups (1.0 and 1.5 ml) exhibited considerable significant (P < 0.05) antidiabetic property with drastic reduction in the blood glucose level. There was a significant reduction in the blood glucose levels in the quail egg-treated groups at day 7 and 14, respectively. The quail egg-treated group of 1.5 ml showed better antidiabetic activity characterized with a significant reduction of blood glucose level compared to the positive group which received the standard reference drug metformin monohydrate 10 mg/kg.
Conclusion: The research findings of the study clearly showed that quail egg possesses an antidiabetic property.

Keywords: Alloxan, antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, metformin, quail egg


How to cite this article:
Agbafor A, Arome D, Oluebube WG. Evaluation of antidiabetic property of quail egg on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats. J Curr Res Sci Med 2017;3:84-7

How to cite this URL:
Agbafor A, Arome D, Oluebube WG. Evaluation of antidiabetic property of quail egg on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats. J Curr Res Sci Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 20];3:84-7. Available from: http://www.jcrsmed.org/text.asp?2017/3/2/84/222413


  Introduction Top


Diabetes mellitus is one of the oldest known diseases of humankind whose devastating effect is increasing by the day and severity almost at epidemic level.[1] The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially in the last decade. Diabetes mellitus is metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia.[2] Insulin plays a crucial role in checkmating and mopping excess glucose from the blood stream to the tissue and other fat cells in the body through the help of GLU4 transport mechanism. Diabetes mellitus is classified as insulin-dependent diabetes classified as type 1, noninsulin dependent diabetes classified as type 2, and maturity onset diabetes of the young is now classified as Type 3 and gestational diabetes classified as Type 4.

Despite the significant achievements in treatment modalities and preventive measures of diabetes, its prevalence has risen exponentially in the last decade. Because of these limitations, there is a continued need for new and more effective therapies which would improve diabetic control and reduced associated risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. A lot of alternative therapies have emerged in recent times, and quail egg happens to be one of them. Quail egg is claimed by traditional doctors to have an antidiabetic property because of its diverse chemical constituents and use in treating obesity. This is why the use of herbs and animal product has more than tripled over the last 10 years.[3]

It has been reported though not scientifically proven that quail eggs have antidiabetic, anticancer, and antihyperlipidemic properties that help to increase appetite, stimulate digestion, and ameliorate constipation, muscle weakness, dizziness, and fatigue.[4] Furthermore, the egg is also claimed to ameliorate nervous system disorders, improve skin color and strengthen hair and improves liver function, diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, gastroduodenal ulcer, and alopecia.[5] There is the general belief that consumption of quail egg can help in the management of diabetes diseases, but there is no documented work on the consumption of quail egg on some of the factors that are implicated in the etiology of diabetic diseases. With the increasing incidence of diabetes in the urban and rural population throughout the world, there is need for the development of indigenous, inexpensive sources for antidiabetic crude, or purified drugs.[6] This, therefore, necessitates the need for research into the claims by traditional herbalist that led to increased consumption of quail egg in Nigeria in the recent time and the need to find alternative medicine or therapeutic agents that retain therapeutic efficacy and can be taken for long durations, with minimal or no side effects.


  Materials and Methods Top


Sample collection

Quail eggs were obtained from Animal Farm, Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Production, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Umuahia [Table 1].
Table 1: Acute toxicity study of freshly prepared quail egg extract on Wister albino rats

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Acute toxicity studies

Acute toxicity studies were conducted to determine the safe dose level for the administration of the quail eggs. Six male Wistar albino rats were used and grouped into three cages. The Wister albino rats were allowed 2 weeks of acclimatization. Wistar rats were orally administered with the freshly prepared quail egg extract at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4 Ml, respectively. They were later observed closely for 1 h, frequently for the next 4 h, periodically once in 4 h and then on a daily basis, that is once 24 h. Animals surviving the first 24 h were observed for the next 3 days.

Experimental animals

A total of 35 adult male Wister albino rats weighing 150–200 g were obtained from animal house of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria Nsukka. The animals were housed in locally fabricated cage in the animal house of Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, for 2 days. The animals were kept in separate cages of seven each per cage. The animals were maintained under standard laboratory conditions and fed with growers mash (Vital Feeds Ltd.) and provided with water ad libitium. The animals were acclimatized for 2 weeks before the commencement of the experiment. The principle of laboratory animal care guideline procedures were followed in the study.

Drugs and chemicals

Chemical used and manufacturer; alloxan (2, 4, 5, 6-tetraoxypyrimidine; 2, 4, 5, 6-pyrimidinetetrone), drug; glucophage-metformin HCl tablets BP (Merck (Private) Limited, Pakistan), full quail egg.

Egg preparation

A day old quail eggs were obtained daily from the Animal Farm, Department of Animal Science, Federal University, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. The Quail eggs were washed properly with clean water. The shells were broken, and the content mixed together and administered orally to the Wister albino rats.

Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus model

Thirty albino rats were fasted for 24 h but were allowed free access to drinking water. At the end of the fasting period taken as zero time (0 h), blood was withdrawn from the tail vein of the rats and blood sugar level determined with one touch glucometer kit. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan-monohydrate intraperitoneally at a dose of 150 mg/kg. A rest period of 2 days was allowed for the fasting blood sugar level to stabilize. During this period, the animals had free access to both food and water.

On the 3rd day, the animals were again fasted for 12 h and their fasting blood sugar levels determined with the one touch glucometer kit. The diabetic rats were divided into five groups of five animals per group. Group I (negative control animals) received no treatment. Group II (positive control) received dissolved metformin (standard drug) at 10 mg/kg weight. While group III received 0.5 ml of the quail egg content, Group IV received 1.0 ml of the quail egg content, and Group V received 1.5 ml. The quail egg content and the standard reference drug were administered orally. Blood sample was withdrawn from the animals at intervals of 7, 14, and 21 days and the blood sugar levels determined in each case with the glucometer kit.

Statistical analysis

The software package, GraphPad Software, version 5.02 (Suite 230 La Jolla, CA 92037 USA) was used for data analysis. Values are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett test was used for the evaluation of data and P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant.


  Discussion Top


Alloxan-induced hyperglycemia has been a useful experimental model to study the activity of hypoglycemic agents.[7] Alloxan has been utilized in the diabetes model due to its ability to produce a high percentage of the endogenous beta cells destruction, and thus, there is little endogenous insulin production, leading to hyperglycemia, and weight loss and also provides a simple and relatively cheap model of diabetes in rodents and can also be used in higher animals.[8]

The enormous costs of modern medicines indicate that alternative strategies are required for better management of diabetes. Hence, the search for safer and more effective hypoglycemic agents has continued. Traditional plant medicines and animal products such as quail eggs are used throughout the world for a range of diabetic complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic property of quail eggs on alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats. Increase in blood glucose concentration following alloxan injection results primarily to selective destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (that is beta cells) when administered to rodents.[9],[10]

The antidiabetic property of quail egg followed a concentration-dependent pattern, on day 7 of the study [Table 2]. There were significant reductions in the blood glucose level at various concentrations of the quail egg with 1.5 ml group having the least blood glucose level. The quail egg-treated groups showed better antidiabetic activity characterized with significant reduction of blood glucose level compared to the standard group. The antidiabetic property of quail egg could be attributed to it vitamins composition. It has been reported that quail eggs are packed with B-family vitamins which result in boosted metabolic activity throughout the body, including hormonal and enzymatic function thereby ensuring smooth bodily processes, and organ functions.
Table 2: Effect of freshly prepared quail egg extract on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats

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The group that received 1.0 ml and 1.5 ml of the quail egg content showed significant reduction of blood glucose level, respectively, when compared to untreated control after 14 days of treatment. This shows that the quail egg exhibits concentration-dependent activity. 0.5 ml of quail egg administered produced a gradual reduction of the fasting blood glucose level at 7 days after the administration of the extract. However, after 14 days of treatments, the quail egg-treated groups showed a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the blood glucose level when compared to the untreated control. The 1.5 ml, dose was found to be more effective in the glycemic change than the 0.5 ml treated group. From the result of the study (day 7 and 14), there were continues reduction in the blood glucose level in the treated groups as while as the reference standard group of metformin 10 mg/kg.

The quail egg-treated groups tend to show better antidiabetic property with remarkable significant decrease in the blood glucose level. The blood group levels in the quail egg-treated groups are much lower compared to the reference standard. The antidiabetic activity of quail egg followed a concentration dependent pattern with 1.5 ml treated group having the least recorded blood glucose throughout the period of the study.

Some hypothesis relates their effects on the activity of pancreatic β-cells,[11] synthesis, release, cell regeneration/revitalization or the increase in the protective/inhibitory effect against insulin and the increase of the insulin sensitivity, or the insulin-like activity of the plant extracts.


  Conclusion Top


The result of the study clearly showed that quail egg possesses an antidiabetic property. The antidiabetic property of quail justifies its acclaimed use by traditional healers in the treatment of diabetics and provides a scientific evidence for its antidiabetic property. Further study is, however, needed to exploit the main active principles responsible for its antidiabetic property.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Mycek MJ, Hoeland RD. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. Vol. 157, 158. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2000. p. 240-1.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Eisenberg E, Lurie Y, Braker C, Daoud D, Ishay A. Lamotrigine reduces painful diabetic neuropathy: A randomized, controlled study. Neurology 2001;57:505-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
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Tunsaringkarn T, Tungjaroenchai W, Siriwong W. Nutrient's benefit of quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Int J Sci Res Public 2013;3:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Truffier JC. Approach to treatment of allergy by consumption of quail egg. Fr Med J Clin 1978;22:2-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Venkatesh M, Rong L, Raad I, Versalovic J. Novel synergistic antibiofilm combinations for salvage of infected catheters. J Med Microbiol 2009;58:936-44.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.
Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res 2001;50:537-46.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.
Dufrane D, van Steenberghe M, Guiot Y, Goebbels RM, Saliez A, Gianello P, et al. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in large animals (pigs/primates): Role of GLUT2 transporter and beta-cell plasticity. Transplantation 2006;81:36-45.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Tyrberg B, Andersson A, Borg LA. Species differences in susceptibility of transplanted and cultured pancreatic islets to the beta-cell toxin alloxan. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2001;122:238-51.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Anderson A. Extraction of urethral calculi by transabdominal cystoscopy and urethroscopy in nine dogs. View. TOC 2011;52:182-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Zarzuelo A, Risco S, Gámez MJ, Jimenez J, Cámara M, Martinez MA, et al. Hypoglycemic action of Salvia lavandulifolia vahl. Spp. Oxyodon: A contribution to studies on the mechanism of action. Life Sci 1990;47:909-15.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
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