• Users Online: 228
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-9

Levobupivacaine: A safer alternative


Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission22-Apr-2016
Date of Acceptance10-May-2016
Date of Web Publication16-Jun-2016

Correspondence Address:
Syed Moied Ahmed
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2455-3069.184114

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

In the quest for safer and effective anesthesia and analgesia, local anesthetics such as levobupivacaine or ropivacaine have been introduced into the clinical practice. Several studies have been done to assess their efficacy and relative superiority to bupivacaine. The aim of this review is to provide the recent and comprehensive updates regarding the clinical and pharmacological utility of levobupivacaine. Using Google search for indexing databases, a search for articles published was performed using various combinations of the following search terms: (a) Pharmacology; (b) clinical; (c) profile; (d) levobupivacaine; (e) local anesthetic; (f) recent. Additional sources were also identified by exploring the primary reference list.

Keywords: Bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, local anesthetic, pharmacology


How to cite this article:
Athar M, Ahmed SM, Ali S, Siddiqi OA. Levobupivacaine: A safer alternative. J Curr Res Sci Med 2016;2:3-9

How to cite this URL:
Athar M, Ahmed SM, Ali S, Siddiqi OA. Levobupivacaine: A safer alternative. J Curr Res Sci Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Mar 23];2:3-9. Available from: http://www.jcrsmed.org/text.asp?2016/2/1/3/184114


  Introduction Top


Levobupivacaine is a relatively new long-acting local anesthetic that has been produced to address the issue of cardiovascular and neurological toxicity following inadvertent intravascular injections. [1] The three-dimensional structure of local anesthetic molecules forms two enantiomeric molecules that exist in two different spatial configurations. These enantiomers depending on the rotation of the plane of polarized light are grouped into dextrorotatory (R+) or levorotatory (S−) stereoisomers. Traditionally available bupivacaine is a racemic mixture of both the enantiomers. However, technological advancements in the recent era have allowed the production of specific enantiomer containing optically pure molecules. The two enantiomers are exactly similar in physicochemical properties, but can have different affinity for the site of action or the side effects. The differential affinity of these enantiomers for sodium, potassium, and calcium channels results in a significant reduction of neurological and cardiac toxicity of the S-enantiomer in comparison to the R-enantiomer. [2],[3] Ropivacaine and levobupivacaine are available as optically pure solutions. With the increasing usage potential of levobupivacaine for anesthesia and analgesia, especially in the ultrasound-guided peripheral blocks and labor analgesia, it is required to have the latest evidence-based knowledge about pharmaco-clinical profile of this drug. This review discusses the clinical pharmacology and toxicology of levobupivacaine and its clinical application in different fields of anesthesia.


  Methods Top


A Google search for published articles since the year 1972 in various indexing databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed using various combinations of the following search terms: (a) Pharmacology; (b) clinical; (c) profile; (d) levobupivacaine; (e) local anesthetic; (f) recent. Searches were updated till May 11, 2016. Additional sources were also identified by exploring the primary reference list. Studies in which levobupivacaine was used in regional anesthesia were selected. Large well-controlled randomized trials with ≥ 30 patients per treatment group were preferred except in cases where data are lacking. The main comparators were other amide local anesthetics such as bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and lignocaine with or without opioids.

  • Proper name: Levobupivacaine hydrochloride
  • Chemical name: (S) -1-Butyl- 2', 6'-pipecoloxylidide [Figure 1]
  • IUPAC name: (S) -1-butyl-N- (2, 6-dimethylphenyl) piperidine-2-carboxamide
  • Molecular formula: C 18 H 28 N 2 O
  • Molecular mass: 288.43 g/mole
Figure 1: Structure of levobupivacaine

Click here to view


Physico-chemical properties



Pharmacodynamics

Levobupivacaine is lipid-soluble, highly protein-bound local anesthetic with a dissociation constant (pKa) similar to that of bupivacaine and ropivacaine, but higher than that of lidocaine. These pharmacological characteristics determine its relatively slow onset, high potency, and long duration of action. [4] Similar to other local anesthetics, inhibition of impulse transmission in various tissues leads to the development of adverse reactions. [5]

Relative potency

Most of the clinical studies suggest that levobupivacaine is relatively less potent than bupivacaine, but more potent than ropivacaine. [5] Greater lipid solubility and formulation of levobupivacaine could partly explain its potency differences to ropivacaine. [6] The typical formulation of levobupivacaine underestimates the active molecules by 12.6% than its racemate. [7] However, in many recent studies, [8],[9] > 30% difference is found in potency suggesting that levobupivacaine is actually more potent than ropivacaine. Its potency compared to ropivacaine remained inconsistent and varied from 1 to 1.67. [6] Hence, based on the above facts and various previous studies, [3],[8],[10],[11],[12] levobupivacaine is assumed to be 1.5 times more potent than ropivacaine.

Mechanism of action

Levobupivacaine has a similar mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic properties as that of bupivacaine. [4],[13] It reversibly blocks the sodium channels at the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated nerves leading to faster onset as compared to unmyelinated nerves. Similarly, nerves which are small in diameter are more easily blocked than large nerves. [4]

Central nervous system toxicity

Systemic toxicity of local anesthetics generally occurs due to overdosing or inadvertent intravascular or intrathecal injection. The neurological features of toxicity appear early followed by cardiovascular due to increased susceptibility of central nervous system (CNS) to local anesthetics. However, according to a recent review, over 40% of the presentation did not fit into this classical description of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. [14] Initial signs of excitation such as shivering, tremors, and muscle twitching are produced due to preferential blockade of inhibitory central pathways. With the increase of the local anesthetic plasma concentrations, the excitatory pathway of CNS toxicity is blocked and signs of generalized CNS depression with hypoventilation and respiratory arrest, and finally generalized convulsions may occur. Based on various animal [15],[16] and randomized controlled studies, [17],[18],[19] it is concluded that uptake of bupivacaine by the central nervous cells is also enantio-selective and hence, both levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are much safer than the bupivacaine. Their convulsive threshold is found to be higher in various animal models, leading to fewer CNS symptoms after intravenous administration in human volunteers and fewer excitatory changes in the electroencephalogram than bupivacaine. [3]

Cardiovascular system

There is potential for cardiovascular toxicity with local anesthetics because they block ion channels not only in the nerve cell membranes but also in other excitable tissues such as the heart. The risk of toxicity is greater for longer acting local anesthetics. [20] The cardiovascular toxic effects of local anesthetics also follow a two-stage pathway: An initial activation of the sympathetic nervous system during the CNS excitatory phase leads to tachycardia and hypertension that can mask direct myocardial depression followed by arrhythmias and profound contractile dysfunction. [21] With bupivacaine, cardiotoxicity generally manifests as cardiac arrhythmias (including ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia) and severe cardiac collapse that can be rapid, irreversible, and fatal. [20] There seems a dose-dependent prolongation of cardiac conduction with the use of all the three commonly available local anesthetics leading to an increase in the PR interval and QRS duration on the electrocardiogram. This is due to the persistent blockade of sodium channels into diastole, predisposing to re entrant arrhythmias depending on the drugs' dissociation. As bupivacaine takes 10 times more time to dissociate than that of lidocaine, its blockade can accumulate, resulting in a more marked cardiac depression. The levorotatory isomer, on the other hand, is seven fold less potent in blocking the potassium channel and hence, decreases the propensity to prolong QTc interval. Furthermore, the potency and affinity for the potassium channel are directly dependent on the length of the alkyl substitute at position "1," so is the difference between "propylic" and "butylic" chains of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine.[3] The inhibition of contractility is also proportional to the lipid solubility and potency, suggesting a rank order of the cardiotoxic potential as ropivacaine < S (?) bupivacaine [3] Hence, levobupivacaine S (?) due to stereoselective binding of sodium and potassium channels demonstrated less affinity and strength of inhibitory effect than the racemic parent or dextrobupivacaine and consequently decreased the toxicity profile.[22]

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

It depends on the route and vascularity of the tissue. Epidural levobupivacaine absorption is biphasic and affected by age and concentration of the drug. There is higher spread of analgesia (by three dermatomes) in older patients. Hence, it is recommended that elderly patients receive reduced doses of levobupivacaine, according to their physical status. [5]

Distribution

Levobupivacaine is highly bound to plasma proteins, [23] with widespread distribution. [5]

Metabolism and excretion

Levobupivacaine is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form 3-hydroxylevobupivacaine and to form desbutyl-levobupivacaine. [23] The glucuronic acid and sulfate ester conjugates of 3-hydroxylevobupicaune are excreted in the urine.

Indication/clinical uses

Levobupivacaine use has increased drastically for the past few years because of its safer pharmacological profile. [24] It is increasingly being used in subarachnoid block, epidural anesthesia and analgesia, brachial plexus blocks, peripheral nerve blocks, ocular blocks as well as local infiltration. It is also used for labor analgesia, postoperative pain as well as management of acute and chronic pain.

Subarachnoid block

Levobupivacaine is a better alternative to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. It has similar sensory and motor characteristics and recovery time like bupivacaine [Table 1]. Minimum effective local anesthetic dose of levobupivacaine as recommended by sequential up and down study is 11.7 mg. [24]
Table 1: Comparative efficacy of intrathecal ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Randomized, double-blind trials of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in patients undergoing anesthesia for elective cesarean section[26] or lower limb surgery[12,25,27-29]

Click here to view


Epidural block

Levobupivacaine has been successfully used in providing epidural anesthesia and analgesia [Table 2].
Table 2: Comparative efficacy of levobupivacaine in epidural nerve block

Click here to view


It provides similar sensory block, but delayed and less dense motor block. [29]

Postoperative analgesia

Epidural levobupivacaine as a continuous infusion of 15 mg/h provides effective pain relief in the postoperative period. [24] It has been successfully used in knee arthroscopy, [35] patient-controlled femoral nerve block, [36] caudal block in pediatrics, [37] epidural block and transverse abdominis plane block for colorectal surgeries. [38],[39] Postincisional wound infiltration with 0.125% levobupivacaine provides an effective analgesia. In a recent study, levobupivacaine is reported to have a positive effect in the earlier period of wound healing followed by a negative effect thereafter. [24]

Peripheral nerve block

Levobupivacaine is a good substitute for bupivacaine [Table 3]. Compared to ropivacaine, it provides a significantly longer duration of analgesia. [24]
Table 3: Comparative efficacy of levobupivacaine in peripheral nerve block

Click here to view


Dosage recommendation

Obstetrics


Subarachnoid block for cesarean section

Onset as well as the duration of sensory and the motor block is slightly higher with levobupivacaine than bupivacaine in cesarean section. [45] The relative potency order is bupivacaine > levobupivacaine > ropivacaine. [26],[46]

Labor analgesia

Either combined spinal-epidural (CSE) or purely epidural block can be used for providing labor analgesia. Various studies have shown the minimum local analgesic doses for intrathecal as 2.73-3.16 mg for levobupivacaine and 3.33-3.96 mg for ropivacaine. [47] The addition of opioids provides relative local anesthetic sparing effect with an improved sensory block and less motor block in CSE. [48],[49] The use of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine has been encouraged in the epidural block because of relative safety and less motor blockade. The analgesic efficacy is dependent on its concentration, and at least 0.1% is required for satisfactory analgesia. [50] Levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine, all provide adequate analgesia without any significant difference in labor duration and neonatal outcome. [51]

Ophthalmic anesthesia

The decreased cardiovascular and neurological toxicity of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine has favored their use in retrobulbar and peribulbar blocks. At equipotent doses, levobupivacaine has been shown to provide more effective anesthesia as compared to ropivacaine and 2% lignocaine. [52],[53]

Pediatric anesthesia

It may be safely used in spinal, caudal, or infiltration for postoperative analgesia.

Subarachnoid block

A comparatively higher dose of 1.2 mg/kg is required in comparison to 1 mg/kg of isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and ropivacaine in neonates. [20]



Caudal block

Levobupivacaine in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg is recommended for the caudal block. Its potency is similar to bupivacaine for lower abdominal surgery. [54]

Geriatric anesthesia

Elderly patients generally have concomitant comorbidities, and safer alternatives such as levobupivacaine and ropivacaine may significantly reduce the side effects during the subarachnoid block. [55]

Contraindications

  • Patients with a hypersensitivity to ropivacaine or any other local anesthetic agent of the amide type
  • Intravenous regional anesthesia (bier block)
  • Patients with severe hypotension such as cardiogenic or hypovolemic shock
  • Obstetric paracervical block anesthesia. [56]


Pregnancy and lactation

Levobupivacaine is a category B drug. It is contraindicated for paracervical block in obstetrics. Based on experience with bupivacaine, fetal bradycardia may occur and therefore not to be given during early pregnancy unless clearly necessary. Levobupivacaine excretion in breast milk is unknown. It is likely to be poorly excreted in breast milk as for bupivacaine. Breastfeeding is possible after local anesthesia. [56]

Drug interactions

Cytochrome P450 inhibitors

As CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are involved in the metabolism of levobupivacaine, there is a potential for interactions with inhibitors of these enzymes, such as methylxanthines (CYP1A2 inhibitors) and ketoconazole (a CYP3A4 inhibitor).

Antiarrhythmics

it is recommended that caution is taken when co-administering levobupivacaine with antiarrhythmics that have local anesthetic effects, such as Class III antiarrhythmics and mexiletine, as toxic effects may be additive. [5]

Adverse effects

The most commonly reported side effects are hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, tachycardia or bradycardia, back pain, and fetal distress syndrome in obstetrics. Apart from this, overdosage and unintentional intravascular injection may cause reactions with amide local anesthetics. Neurological damage is rare but well-recognized consequence of neuraxial blocks. Rare reports of cauda equina syndrome and transient Horner's syndrome in association with regional anesthetic use have been obtained. [23],[56]


  Conclusion Top


Levobupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic with much safer pharmaco-clinical profile in comparison to its parent compound bupivacaine.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Albright GA. Cardiac arrest following regional anesthesia with etidocaine or bupivacaine. Anesthesiology 1979;51:285-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Aberg G. Toxicological and local anaesthetic effects of optically active isomers of two local anaesthetic compounds. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1972;31:444-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Leone S, Di Cianni S, Casati A, Fanelli G. Pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical use of new long acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Acta Biomed 2008;79:92-105.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Buckenmaier CC 3 rd , Bleckner LL. Anaesthetic agents for advanced regional anaesthesia: A North American perspective. Drugs 2005;65:745-59.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sanford M, Keating GM. Levobupivacaine: A review of its use in regional anaesthesia and pain management. Drugs 2010;70:761-91.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Frawley G, Smith KR, Ingelmo P. Relative potencies of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine for neonatal spinal anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2009;103:731-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Rosenberg PH, Schug SA. Levobupivacaine base and levobupivacaine hydrochloride. Br J Anaesth 2005;94:544.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Lee YY, Ngan Kee WD, Fong SY, Liu JT, Gin T. The median effective dose of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine after intrathecal injection in lower limb surgery. Anesth Analg 2009;109:1331-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Parpaglioni R, Frigo MG, Lemma A, Sebastiani M, Barbati G, Celleno D. Minimum local anaesthetic dose (MLAD) of intrathecal levobupivacaine and ropivacaine for caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2006;61:110-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Malinovsky JM, Charles F, Kick O, Lepage JY, Malinge M, Cozian A, et al. Intrathecal anesthesia: Ropivacaine versus bupivacaine. Anesth Analg 2000;91:1457-60.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Gautier PE, De Kock M, Steenberge AV, Poth N, Lahaye-Goffart B, Fanard L, et al. Intrathecal ropivacaine for ambulatory surgery: A comparison between intrathecal bupivacaine and intrathecal ropivacaine for knee arthroscopy. Anesthesiology 1999;91:1239-45.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Athar M, Ahmed SM, Ali S, Doley K, Varshney A, Siddiqi MM. Levobupivacaine or ropivacaine: A randomised double blind controlled trial using equipotent doses in spinal anaesthesia. Rev Colomb Anestesiol 2016;44:97-104.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Schug SA, Saunders D, Kurowski I, Paech MJ. Neuraxial drug administration: A review of treatment options for anaesthesia and analgesia. CNS Drugs 2006;20:917-33.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Di Gregorio G, Neal JM, Rosenquist RW, Weinberg GL. Clinical presentation of local anesthetic systemic toxicity: A review of published cases, 1979 to 2009. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010;35:181-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Morrison SG, Dominguez JJ, Frascarolo P, Reiz S. A comparison of the electrocardiographic cardiotoxic effects of racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine in anesthetized swine. Anesth Analg 2000;90:1308-14.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Ohmura S, Kawada M, Ohta T, Yamamoto K, Kobayashi T. Systemic toxicity and resuscitation in bupivacaine-, levobupivacaine-, or ropivacaine-infused rats. Anesth Analg 2001;93:743-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Scott DB, Lee A, Fagan D, Bowler GM, Bloomfield P, Lundh R. Acute toxicity of ropivacaine compared with that of bupivacaine. Anesth Analg 1989;69:563-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Knudsen K, Beckman Suurküla M, Blomberg S, Sjövall J, Edvardsson N. Central nervous and cardiovascular effects of i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo in volunteers. Br J Anaesth 1997;78:507-14.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Bardsley H, Gristwood R, Baker H, Watson N, Nimmo W. A comparison of the cardiovascular effects of levobupivacaine and rac-bupivacaine following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;46:245-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Foster RH, Markham A. Levobupivacaine: A review of its pharmacology and use as a local anaesthetic. Drugs 2000;59:551-79.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Casati A, Putzu M. Bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine: Are they clinically different? Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2005;19:247-68.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ. Update on local anesthetics: Focus on levobupivacaine. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2008;4:381-92.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Europeans Medicines Agency. Chirocaine 1.25 mg/ml Solution for Infusion: Summary of Product Characteristics. Available from: http://www.emc.medicines.org.uk/medicine/19678. [Last accessed on 2010 Mar 25].  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Bajwa SJ, Kaur J. Clinical profile of levobupivacaine in regional anesthesia: A systematic review. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2013;29:530-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
25.
Breebaart MB, Vercauteren MP, Hoffmann VL, Adriaensen HA. Urinary bladder scanning after day-case arthroscopy under spinal anaesthesia: Comparison between lidocaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine. Br J Anaesth 2003;90:309-13.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Gautier P, De Kock M, Huberty L, Demir T, Izydorczic M, Vanderick B. Comparison of the effects of intrathecal ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, and bupivacaine for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2003;91:684-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Casati A, Moizo E, Marchetti C, Vinciguerra F. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of unilateral spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine, ropivacaine, or levobupivacaine for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Anesth Analg 2004;99:1387-92.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Cappelleri G, Aldegheri G, Danelli G, Marchetti C, Nuzzi M, Iannandrea G, et al. Spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric levobupivacaine and ropivacaine for outpatient knee arthroscopy: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Anesth Analg 2005;101:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Mantouvalou M, Ralli S, Arnaoutoglou H, Tziris G, Papadopoulos G. Spinal anesthesia: Comparison of plain ropivacaine, bupivacaine and levobupivacaine for lower abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2008;59:65-71.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kopacz DJ, Allen HW, Thompson GE. A comparison of epidural levobupivacaine 0.75% with racemic bupivacaine for lower abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 2000;90:642-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Peduto VA, Baroncini S, Montanini S, Proietti R, Rosignoli L, Tufano R, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of epidural levobupivacaine 0.5% with epidural ropivacaine 0.75% for lower limb procedures. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003;20:979-83.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Casati A, Santorsola R, Aldegheri G, Ravasi F, Fanelli G, Berti M, et al. Intraoperative epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia with levobupivacaine for major orthopedic surgery: A double-blind, randomized comparison of racemic bupivacaine and ropivacaine. J Clin Anesth 2003;15:126-31.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Cok OY, Eker HE, Turkoz A, Findikcioglu A, Akin S, Aribogan A, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia during the perioperative period of thoracic surgery: Levobupivacaine versus bupivacaine. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011;25:449-54.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Sathyanarayana LA, Heggeri VM, Simha PP, Narasimaiah S, Narasimaiah M, Subbarao BK. Comparison of epidural bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing vascular surgery. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:UC13-7.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Senapati S, Basu A, Bhattacharya D, Hazra S, Sarkar D, Dandapat P. Comparison of analgesic effect of intra-articular administration of levobupivacaine and clonidine versus ropivacaine and clonidine in day care knee arthroscopic surgery under spinal anesthesia. Indian J Pain 2016;30:38-42.  Back to cited text no. 35
  Medknow Journal  
36.
Heid F, Müller N, Piepho T, Bäres M, Giesa M, Drees P, et al. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of peripheral levobupivacaine and ropivacaine: A prospective, randomized double-blind trial in patients after total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 2008;106:1559-61.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Salama AK. Comparison between caudal levobupivacaine versus levobupivacaine-nalbuphine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing hernia repair: A randomized controlled double blind study. Egypt J Anaesth 2016;32:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Lin MC, Huang JY, Lao HC, Tsai PS, Huang CJ. Epidural analgesia with low-concentration levobupivacaine combined with fentanyl provides satisfactory postoperative analgesia for colorectal surgery patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan 2010;48:68-74.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Hamada T, Tsuchiya M, Mizutani K, Takahashi R, Muguruma K, Maeda K, et al. Levobupivacaine - Dextran mixture for transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy: A randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia 2016;71:411-6.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Liisanantti O, Luukkonen J, Rosenberg PH. High-dose bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004;48:601-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Piangatelli C, De Angelis C, Pecora L, Recanatini F, Cerchiara P, Testasecca D. Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in the infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Minerva Anestesiol 2006;72:217-21.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Fournier R, Faust A, Chassot O, Gamulin Z. Levobupivacaine 0.5% provides longer analgesia after sciatic nerve block using the labat approach than the same dose of ropivacaine in foot and ankle surgery. Anesth Analg 2010;110:1486-9.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Alemanno F, Ghisi D, Fanelli A, Faliva A, Pergolotti B, Bizzarri F, et al. Tramadol and 0.5% levobupivacaine for single-shot interscalene block: Effects on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty. Minerva Anesthesiol 2011;77:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Pham Dang C, Langlois C, Lambert C, Nguyen JM, Asehnoune K, Lejus C. 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% ropivacaine: Are they different in ultrasound-guided sciatic block? Saudi J Anaesth 2015;9:3-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Turkmen A, Moralar DG, Ali A, Altan A. Comparison of the anesthetic effects of intrathecal levobupivacaine + fentanyl and bupivacaine + fentanyl during caesarean section. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 2012;21:577-82.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Buyse I, Stockman W, Columb M, Vandermeersch E, Van de Velde M. Effect of sufentanil on minimum local analgesic concentrations of epidural bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in nullipara in early labour. Int J Obstet Anesth 2007;16:22-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Camorcia M, Capogna G, Columb MO. Minimum local analgesic doses of ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, and bupivacaine for intrathecal labor analgesia. Anesthesiology 2005;102:646-50.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Lim Y, Sia AT, Ocampo CE. Comparison of intrathecal levobupivacaine with and without fentanyl in combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI87-91.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Chan SY, Chiu JW. Intrathecal labor analgesia using levobupivacaine 2.5 mg with fentanyl 25 microg - Would half the dose suffice? Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI110-4.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Wang LZ, Chang XY, Liu X, Hu XX, Tang BL. Comparison of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine with sufentanil for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: A randomized clinical trial. Chin Med J (Engl) 2010;123:178-83.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Beilin Y, Guinn NR, Bernstein HH, Zahn J, Hossain S, Bodian CA. Local anesthetics and mode of delivery: Bupivacaine versus ropivacaine versus levobupivacaine. Anesth Analg 2007;105:756-63.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Ghali AM. The efficacy of 0.75% levobupivacaine versus 0.75% ropivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia in vitreoretinal surgery. Saudi J Anaesth 2012;6:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Fernández SA, Dios E, Diz JC. Comparative study of topical anaesthesia with lidocaine 2% vs levobupivacaine 0.75% in cataract surgery. Br J Anaesth 2009;102:216-20.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Frawley GP, Downie S, Huang GH. Levobupivacaine caudal anesthesia in children: A randomized double-blind comparison with bupivacaine. Paediatr Anaesth 2006;16:754-60.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
De Negri P, Ivani G, Tirri T, Modano P, Reato C, Eksborg S, et al. A comparison of epidural bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on postoperative analgesia and motor blockade. Anesth Analg 2004;99:45-8.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Levobupivacaine - ACI. Available from: http://www.aci-bd.com/Generic/Levobupivacaine.pdf.And11. [Last accessed on 2016 May 10].  Back to cited text no. 56
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2142    
    Printed141    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded385    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]